What States require a written model release?

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According to the Professional Photographers Association, the following States require a written model release instead of just a verbal release. "Required" should not be confused as required by law to shoot models. The need for a model release is a civil matter and there are no laws that a model release be used for model shoots. Model releases are used as a defence if or when a model asserts his/her image has been used without her permission for commercial purposes.

1. Illinois: 765 ILCS Ann. 1075
2. Indiana: Indiana Code 32-36
3. Massachusetts: Mass. General Laws 214-3a
4. Nevada: N.R.S. 597.720
5. New York: N.Y. Civil Rights Law Sections 50 and 51
6. Ohio: O.R.S. 2741.02
7. Rhode Island: RIGL 9-1-28
8. Virginia: Va. Code Ann. 8.01-40
9. Wisconsin: Wis. Stat. 895.50(2)(b)

Two other states require a written release from the heirs of someone who is deceased. While these states do not explicitly require written permission from living persons, it’s a good bet that the requirement is implied:

Kentucky: Ky. Rev. Stat. 391.170
Texas: Texas Property Code 26.002

Seven states have statutes in place that appear to accept verbal or written consent as valid:

1. California
2. Florida
3. Nebraska
4. Oklahoma
5. Tennessee
6. Utah
7. Washington